Qatar Country Profile

Qatar country and technical report. Qatar’s limited legislation providing maternity protections and no provisions for paternal leave or dependent care leave contributed to a low score in Sub-Index A. It performed comparatively better in Sub-Index B due to recent reforms of its kafala system and new legislation to protect domestic workers. In all, Qatar scored a 4.53 (out of 10) in the GCPI, placing it in the Emerging band of the Index.

Taiwan

Taiwan Country and Technical Report. While Taiwan’s labor laws offer a baseline of protections for family caregivers, these policies are still ultimately inadequate. Taiwan’s overall score for the GCPI was also pulled down by its lack of protection for domestic workers in Sub-Index B. As domestic workers are considered to be privately employed, they are thus excluded from coverage by the Labor Standards Act – Taiwan’s primary labor law.

Pakistan Country Profile

Pakistan Country and Technical Report. Report summary: As a result of its lack of comprehensive national legislation for unpaid family caregivers or paid domestic workers, Pakistan scores poorly on the GCPI, with a score of 2.73. However, its largest province, Punjab, introduced a Domestic Workers Act in 2019, demonstrating that it is possible for Pakistan as a whole to offer more legal protections to domestic workers across the country.

Jordan Country Profile

Jordan Country and Technical Report. Jordan’s Labor Law provides for maternity leave and some related benefits, but the country scored poorly for Sub-Index A due to the absence of provisions for paternity leave, dependent care leave and flexible work arrangements. Jordan’s domestic workers are covered under the country’s labor laws, but there are gaps in legal protections for migrant workers, particularly surrounding their hiring and employment, which meant a reduction in Jordan’s score for Sub-Index B. Jordan is rated as “Emerging,” with a total score of 4.62.

Nigeria Country Profile

Nigeria Country and Technical Report. Nigeria’s laws offer limited coverage for domestic workers, granting them entitlements to workplace injury benefit and pensions. However, domestic workers remain excluded from a vast majority of labor laws. Nigerian law also fails to offer dependent leave, flexible working arrangements, and adoptive leave to family caregivers across the country. As such, Nigeria is ranked as “Emerging” with a score of 3.16 on the GCPI.

Iceland Country Profile

Iceland Country and Technical Report. While Iceland’s maternity and paternity leave policies are some of the most generous in the world – a joint 12-month allocation to both parents, Iceland’s under-performance in Sub-Index A of the GCPI was ultimately due to its limited dependent care leave policies and lack of universal flexible work policies to support workers with family caregiving responsibilities. Iceland performed better in Sub-Index B for its protections for domestic workers, but the reality is that many domestic workers in the country work informally and are not protected by trade unions.

South Africa: Care Policy Evaluation 2022

South Africa is an upper-middle income country on the tip of the African continent. Despite having a highly developed economy concentrating in providing finance, business, and real estate services, the informal economy still contributes to 27% of South Africa’s GDP. This poses a challenge to the nation when it attempts to pass legislation that protects family caregivers and domestic workers.

Family caregivers are well protected in South Africa. Working women are entitled to 4 months of maternity leave, and extensive nursing and childcare support at the workplace. However, South Africa still stands to improve in the provision of greater flexible working opportunities to family caregivers. South Africa scored 5.93/10.00 for Sub-Index A, positioning it in the “Maturing” index band.

Domestic workers are explicitly covered by labor law in South Africa unless they are independent contractors. As such, domestic workers are protected by legislation that sets minimum working standards and living conditions. Domestic workers are also protected by extensive laws against forced labor. However, South Africa fails to offer migrant domestic workers many legislative protections, which increases the risk of migrant domestic worker exploitation. As such, South Africa scored 6.55/10.00 in Sub-Index A.

Overall, South Africa’s care policies show potential and regard for care-workers. South Africa’s final score on the GCPI is 6.24, ranking it in the “Maturing” index band. To explore South Africa’s care policies in greater detail, you can access South Africa’s country report and technical report here.

Sri Lanka: Care Policy Evaluation 2022

Sri Lanka is a South Asian island nation off the coast of India. Relative to her neighbours in South Asia, Sri Lanka sports relatively higher levels of human development. However, Sri Lanka’s labor law is in need of several amendments in order to further protect family caregivers and domestic workers.

Alongside a minimum 12 week maternity leave provision, Sri Lanka also offers male workers in the state sector 3 days of paternity leave. While such provisions are commendable, they still fall short of the ILO recommended durations. Notably, Sri Lanka legislation also offers generous nursing support at the workplace. However, anti-discrimination legislation must be improved to prevent new mothers from being fired or demoted following their uptake of maternity leave. Further, Sri Lankan law fails to recognize that non-female individuals may act as family caregivers too. As such, Sri Lanka scores 3.73/10.00 in Sub-Index A.

Domestic workers are excluded from labor law in Sri Lanka as they are not commonly included in the definitions of “worker” used by the law. As such, Sri Lanka fails to mandate that domestic workers must be employed with contracts, and given safe and healthy working environments. Given numerous omissions in the protections for domestic workers, Sri Lanka scores 3.12/10.00 in Sub-Index B.

Overall, Sri Lanka scores 3.42 out of 10.00 in the GCPI, placing it in the “Emerging” Index band. A deep-dive into the complexity of Sri Lankan labor law with regard to family caregivers and domestic workers can be found here.

Bangladesh: Care Policy Evaluation 2022

The People’s Republic of Bangladesh is a South Asian country with a large and diverse labor force. With rudimentary legal provisions for family caregivers, and a failure to regulate domestic work at all, Bangladesh scores very poorly on the GCPI with a final score of 0.96/10.00.

Bangladesh offers 16 weeks of maternity leave to working women in the formal sector. Besides this however, Bangladeshi law does not offer legislative protections to other family caregivers. Owing to the lack of any paternity leave policies, dependent care policies, and flexible work arrangements, Bangladesh could only score 1.38 out of 10.00 in Sub-Index A.

Bangladeshi law considers domestic work to be informal sector labor, and as such fails to offer domestic workers any protections under traditional labor laws. However, rudimentary protections exist to combat forced and under-age labor, and domestic workers may still be eligible for social security benefits from the government. Overall, Bangladesh scores 0.55 for Sub-Index B.

Bangladesh’s final score of 0.96/10.00 positions the nation in the “Weak” protections band of the GCPI. Significant legislative reform is required to improve Bangladesh’s performance in the protection of family caregivers and domestic workers. You can read more about Bangladesh’s care policies in the country report here.

South Africa Country Profile

South Africa Country and Technical Report. Download here. South Africa performed well in the GCPI compared to most Upper Middle-Income Countries due to progress on caregiving and domestic labor protections. For Sub-Index A, South Africa had robust parental leave but lacked flexible work arrangements and dependant leave care policies. Critically, South Africa also lacked regulatory and policy architecture to support and protect its growing migrant domestic worker labor force.