Japan Country Report

Japan Country Report and Technical Report.
Overall score: 5.91.
Download country and technical report here.
Report summary: Despite being a developed industrialized country, Japan underperforms when it comes to promoting gender equality. Japan scored a 5.91 out of 10 for the GCPI, placing it in the lower-middle of the Maturing band. Japan’s rapidly changing demographics, specifically its falling birth rate, aging population, decreasing workforce, and declining population, have created an increasing need for eldercare and growing demand for migrant workers to fill strategic gaps in the labor force. In the present day, the vast majority of domestic workers in Japan are live-out migrant workers. Japan performs slightly better in Sub-Index B with a score of 6.24, compared to its performance in Sub-Index A where it receives a score of 5.58.

United States (federal) Country Profile

Saudi Arabia Country Profile

Saudi Arabia country and technical report. Report summary: Saudi Arabia’s limited maternity protections and lack of provisions for flexible working arrangements or dependent care leave contributed to a poor performance in Sub-Index A. While its primarily migrant domestic workforce continues to be saddled by the kafala system which invites abuse, recent domestic worker legislation contributed to a comparatively better performance in Sub-Index B.

South Korea Country Profile

South Korea Country and Technical report. Report summary: Where South Korea’s recent social welfare reforms providing comprehensive pregnancy and maternity leave protections, dependent care leave, and flexible work arrangement provisions contributed to a high Sub-Index A score, its inadequate and underdeveloped employment protections for domestic workers, particularly migrant domestic workers, reflects in a poorer performance in Sub-Index B. South Korea is rated as “Maturing”, with a total score of 6.92.

Philippines Country Report

Country and technical report. Report summary: The Philippines’ comprehensive protection for domestic workers and its recent legislative progress on maternity leave provisions which increased benefits and comprehensive coverage for a wider range of working mothers have contributed to its relatively high score in the GCPI. There are however much room for improvement in providing dependent care leave and flexible work arrangements, as well as enforcements of carework protections.

United Kingdom Country Profile

UK Country and Technical Report. The UK’s progressive policies on maternity, paternity, and shared parental leave offer family caregivers a strong social security net to fall back on. However, progress remains to be seen in offering family caregivers nursing support in the workplace and adequate financial protections during parental leave. While limited legal coverage of domestic workers leaves them with few protections in their working spaces, the UK scored well in Sub-Index B overall. The UK’s ultimately ranked in the “Maturing” Index band, with a score of 7.33/10.00.

Qatar Country Profile

Qatar country and technical report. Qatar’s limited legislation providing maternity protections and no provisions for paternal leave or dependent care leave contributed to a low score in Sub-Index A. It performed comparatively better in Sub-Index B due to recent reforms of its kafala system and new legislation to protect domestic workers. In all, Qatar scored a 4.53 (out of 10) in the GCPI, placing it in the Emerging band of the Index.


Taiwan Country and Technical Report. While Taiwan’s labor laws offer a baseline of protections for family caregivers, these policies are still ultimately inadequate. Taiwan’s overall score for the GCPI was also pulled down by its lack of protection for domestic workers in Sub-Index B. As domestic workers are considered to be privately employed, they are thus excluded from coverage by the Labor Standards Act – Taiwan’s primary labor law.

Pakistan Country Profile

Pakistan Country and Technical Report. Report summary: As a result of its lack of comprehensive national legislation for unpaid family caregivers or paid domestic workers, Pakistan scores poorly on the GCPI, with a score of 2.73. However, its largest province, Punjab, introduced a Domestic Workers Act in 2019, demonstrating that it is possible for Pakistan as a whole to offer more legal protections to domestic workers across the country.

Jordan Country Profile

Jordan Country and Technical Report. Jordan’s Labor Law provides for maternity leave and some related benefits, but the country scored poorly for Sub-Index A due to the absence of provisions for paternity leave, dependent care leave and flexible work arrangements. Jordan’s domestic workers are covered under the country’s labor laws, but there are gaps in legal protections for migrant workers, particularly surrounding their hiring and employment, which meant a reduction in Jordan’s score for Sub-Index B. Jordan is rated as “Emerging,” with a total score of 4.62.