Saudi Arabia Country Profile

Saudi Arabia country and technical report. Report summary: Saudi Arabia’s limited maternity protections and lack of provisions for flexible working arrangements or dependent care leave contributed to a poor performance in Sub-Index A. While its primarily migrant domestic workforce continues to be saddled by the kafala system which invites abuse, recent domestic worker legislation contributed to a comparatively better performance in Sub-Index B.

South Korea Country Profile

South Korea Country and Technical report. Report summary: Where South Korea’s recent social welfare reforms providing comprehensive pregnancy and maternity leave protections, dependent care leave, and flexible work arrangement provisions contributed to a high Sub-Index A score, its inadequate and underdeveloped employment protections for domestic workers, particularly migrant domestic workers, reflects in a poorer performance in Sub-Index B. South Korea is rated as “Maturing”, with a total score of 6.92.


Taiwan Country and Technical Report. While Taiwan’s labor laws offer a baseline of protections for family caregivers, these policies are still ultimately inadequate. Taiwan’s overall score for the GCPI was also pulled down by its lack of protection for domestic workers in Sub-Index B. As domestic workers are considered to be privately employed, they are thus excluded from coverage by the Labor Standards Act – Taiwan’s primary labor law.

Pakistan Country Profile

Pakistan Country and Technical Report. Report summary: As a result of its lack of comprehensive national legislation for unpaid family caregivers or paid domestic workers, Pakistan scores poorly on the GCPI, with a score of 2.73. However, its largest province, Punjab, introduced a Domestic Workers Act in 2019, demonstrating that it is possible for Pakistan as a whole to offer more legal protections to domestic workers across the country.

Jordan Country Profile

Jordan Country and Technical Report. Jordan’s Labor Law provides for maternity leave and some related benefits, but the country scored poorly for Sub-Index A due to the absence of provisions for paternity leave, dependent care leave and flexible work arrangements. Jordan’s domestic workers are covered under the country’s labor laws, but there are gaps in legal protections for migrant workers, particularly surrounding their hiring and employment, which meant a reduction in Jordan’s score for Sub-Index B. Jordan is rated as “Emerging,” with a total score of 4.62.

Sri Lanka Country Report

GCPI Sri Lanka Country and Technical Report. Sri Lanka’s limited recognition of non-female family caregivers, its lack of state funding of maternity benefits, and exclusion of domestic workers from its labor law coverage contributed to an overall poor score of 3.42. Nevertheless, Sri Lanka sports generous state healthcare services and nursing support for mothers alongside robust protections for forced and underage domestic workers.

Bangladesh Country Report

Bangladesh country and technical report. Bangladesh scored very poorly in the GCPI, with its overall score of 0.96 placing it in the ‘Weak’ band. A key reason for this poor performance is the extremely limited legal framework to protect caregivers. Domestic work is also considered informal employment in Bangladesh, and as such is not covered by labor laws. They consequently lack any legislation that guarantees their labor rights, or access to fair employment processes, or decent working and living conditions.

Malaysia Country Report

Malaysia Country Report and Technical Report. Overall score: 3.65. Download country and technical report here.

Report summary: Malaysia‌ ‌scored‌ ‌poorly‌ ‌on‌ ‌the‌ ‌GCPI,‌ ‌with‌ ‌very‌ ‌limited‌ ‌protections‌ ‌for‌ ‌Family‌ ‌Caregivers‌ ‌as‌ ‌well‌ ‌as‌ ‌Domestic‌ ‌Workers.‌ ‌In‌ ‌particular,‌ ‌Malaysia’s‌ ‌main‌ ‌employment‌ ‌act‌ ‌has‌ ‌poor‌ ‌coverage,‌ ‌lacks‌ ‌paternity‌ ‌and‌ ‌dependent‌ ‌care‌ ‌leave‌ ‌policies,‌ ‌and‌ ‌actively‌ ‌excludes‌ ‌DWs‌ ‌from‌ ‌several‌ ‌sections‌ ‌of‌ ‌the‌ ‌employment‌ ‌act‌ ‌that‌ ‌govern‌ ‌important‌ ‌employment‌ ‌policies‌ ‌such‌ ‌as‌ ‌wages‌ ‌and‌ ‌sick‌ ‌leave.‌ ‌Its‌ ‌overall‌ ‌score‌ ‌of‌ ‌3.65‌ ‌falls‌ ‌in‌ ‌the‌ ‌middle‌ ‌of‌ ‌the‌ Emerging”‌ ‌band‌ ‌on‌ ‌the‌ ‌GCPI.‌

Singapore Country Report

Singapore Country Report and Technical Report. Overall score: 5.48. Download country and technical report here.

Report summary: Singapore’s Employment Act and social security provisions offer benefits
for Singaporean families with childcare responsibilities, however the country lacks family-friendly workplace policies. Meanwhile, paid domestic workers (who are a support pillar for many Singapore households) face less favorable working and living conditions.
As such, Singapore’s policy regime for caregivers and careworkers is rated on the low end of the “Maturing” band under the Global Care Policy Index (GCPI).