Saudi Arabia: Care Policy Evaluation 2022

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is blessed with a strong economy, but suffers from underdeveloped care policies. With an overall GCPI score of only 4.00/10.00, Saudi Arabia’s care policies – particularly those protections for family caregivers – are in need of improvement.

Saudi Arabia scores 2.32/10.00 in Sub-Index A, placing it in the ‘Weak’ Index band. This score reflects a total lack of dependent care and flexible work policies, and very limited protections for pregnant women. Fully paid maternity leave in Saudi Arabia excludes certain categories of women such as part-time workers, and women only receive fully paid maternity leave if they have already worked three or more years for their employer.

Sub-Index B sees Saudi Arabia perform better, with a score of 5.67/10.00. Most domestic workers in Saudi Arabia are migrants, and hotlines exist to provide migrant domestic workers with special assistance. However, domestic workers are barred from trade union activity, and have no minimum wage. There is minimal regulation of the living and working conditions of domestic workers too.

You can read more about Saudi Arabia’s care policies here.

South Africa: Care Policy Evaluation 2022

South Africa is an upper-middle income country on the tip of the African continent. Despite having a highly developed economy concentrating in providing finance, business, and real estate services, the informal economy still contributes to 27% of South Africa’s GDP. This poses a challenge to the nation when it attempts to pass legislation that protects family caregivers and domestic workers.

Family caregivers are well protected in South Africa. Working women are entitled to 4 months of maternity leave, and extensive nursing and childcare support at the workplace. However, South Africa still stands to improve in the provision of greater flexible working opportunities to family caregivers. South Africa scored 5.93/10.00 for Sub-Index A, positioning it in the “Maturing” index band.

Domestic workers are explicitly covered by labor law in South Africa unless they are independent contractors. As such, domestic workers are protected by legislation that sets minimum working standards and living conditions. Domestic workers are also protected by extensive laws against forced labor. However, South Africa fails to offer migrant domestic workers many legislative protections, which increases the risk of migrant domestic worker exploitation. As such, South Africa scored 6.55/10.00 in Sub-Index A.

Overall, South Africa’s care policies show potential and regard for care-workers. South Africa’s final score on the GCPI is 6.24, ranking it in the “Maturing” index band. To explore South Africa’s care policies in greater detail, you can access South Africa’s country report and technical report here.

Bangladesh: Care Policy Evaluation 2022

The People’s Republic of Bangladesh is a South Asian country with a large and diverse labor force. With rudimentary legal provisions for family caregivers, and a failure to regulate domestic work at all, Bangladesh scores very poorly on the GCPI with a final score of 0.96/10.00.

Bangladesh offers 16 weeks of maternity leave to working women in the formal sector. Besides this however, Bangladeshi law does not offer legislative protections to other family caregivers. Owing to the lack of any paternity leave policies, dependent care policies, and flexible work arrangements, Bangladesh could only score 1.38 out of 10.00 in Sub-Index A.

Bangladeshi law considers domestic work to be informal sector labor, and as such fails to offer domestic workers any protections under traditional labor laws. However, rudimentary protections exist to combat forced and under-age labor, and domestic workers may still be eligible for social security benefits from the government. Overall, Bangladesh scores 0.55 for Sub-Index B.

Bangladesh’s final score of 0.96/10.00 positions the nation in the “Weak” protections band of the GCPI. Significant legislative reform is required to improve Bangladesh’s performance in the protection of family caregivers and domestic workers. You can read more about Bangladesh’s care policies in the country report here.